Kaplan displays were used by James J Gibson’s student to study dynamic progressive occlusion. When the small surface is moving, it is clearly perceived as a second surface separated in depth and in front of the background. When it stops moving, it vanishes; the display flattens out and depth is gone.
More notes and information later; for now, here is demo Matlab code and a video. You will need Matlab, the Psychtoolbox and hardware to handle both (although this is a very light use of the graphics card!) Run by calling
and use the arrow keys to move the square. There are display parameters at the top of the file you can tweak to alter the time the demo runs, the density of the texture, etc.